They, suggested that the hippocampus might play a specific, role in recombining stored information into futu, event simulations, based on evidence that, proposed that much of the brain’s default activity, The other area of research that has focused on, imagining the future, concerns whether or not animals, have the capacities to recall the past and predict the, in humans. H��W�n7����~-������d�p��&���q�mO�4�����)�ER#��0`MUɺ�S,^�ܿ]nn�����~9�ƫ���ً��U�RI%F�'���{��c���ь?�o~��p��k3���Ĥ��ғ�q�*��+�5֌���M��&�='!Bo#�����j2!�.��y ������v (, 1), the same scent is repeated, though in a different location. (2016), we speculate that the shared mechanism of language and memory might be associated with a critical role of the hippocampus in semantic memory (e.g., Duff et al., 2020;Manns et al., 2003) and the capacity of the hippocampus for predicting and simulating the future events based on past experience, ... That is, upon presentation of a predictive cue or context, the hippocampus may retrieve the associated outcome through pattern completion (Henke, 2010;McClelland et al., 1995), regardless of the exact nature of the stimuli. Retrieval of long-term episodic memories is characterised by synchronised neural activity between hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), with additional evidence that vmPFC activity leads that of the hippocampus. Transitive inference in rats. This article examines how and why memory can get us into trouble. The objectives of the present chapter are to review the behavioral approaches used to investigate navigation and episodic memory in different mammalian species, and to provide insight into the specific brain structures and potential neuronal mechanisms underlying both abilities. Furthermore, firing rate distributions in the place fields were negatively skewed and asymmetric, which is similar to place field changes that occur after repeated experience. This is in line with evidence that the hippocampus is involved in many different types of predictions, pertaining to, for example, faces and scenes (Turk-Browne, Scholl, Johnson, & Chun, 2010), auditory sequences (Recasens, Gross, & Uhlhaas, 2018), odors, ... That is, upon presentation of a predictive cue or context, the hippocampus may retrieve the associated outcome through pattern completion (14,21), regardless of the exact nature of the stimuli. ROCs for recognition performance in humans and rats. Here, we leveraged the high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG), and combined it with a scene imagination task. Make sure you get the 2nd edition. the immediately surrounding parahippocampal region. With respect to the nature of information processing within the hippocampus, it can be concluded that the hippocampus codes spatial attributes, may or may not code sensory-perceptual attributes, appears to code temporal attributes based on spatial and sensory-perceptual cues, but does not code response attributes. The resulting ROC, of new items as old, across a range of response-bias, levels typically measured by confidence ratings. Importantly, the capacity for predicting, events that have never occurred is viewed as quali-, tatively different from predictions about events that, have also previously occurred, for example, predicting, that a reward will be given for repeating a behavioural. Other studies have suggested that animals may, also have the capacity to recall the past and plan for the future. Significance statement To investigate this issue, HF CA1 place cell activity in rats was analyzed after the adaptation of the rats to the same sensory mismatch condition. The storage capacity of working memory is limited but can be expanded by training, and evidence of the neural mechanisms underlying this effect is accumul … 1.1 Research Perspective. Subsequently, what, where and when memory was tested by presenting a choice between two cups from the list (e.g. Our data show that animals have the capacity for transitive inference and that, the hippocampus plays a central role in the ability to predict outcomes of events that have not, There are two general areas of considerable, activity aimed at understanding how we conscio, make predictions about future events, one of which, seeks to identify the brain structures that underlie, imagining the future in humans and the other on, the evolution of predicting future events through, Considerable recent interest in the link between, imaging studies showed that a largely overlapping, Why are the same brain areas that support laying, down memories the same ones used in conceiving the, future? Importantly, we discovered that dissociative inferences serve to restructure or reparse patterns of directly acquired associations when animals are faced with environmental changes and need to extract relevant information from a multiplex memory. We discuss several potential explanations for this dissociation, concluding that the computational role of the hippocampus in predictive processing depends upon the nature and complexity of stimuli. Such a pattern of results was replicated using different sentence stimuli in another cohort of participants. Note that the position of the cup is independent of the. The strength of hippocampal predictions correlated across participants with the amount of expectation-related facilitation in visual cortex. Research articles present results of original research. models, labs, and disciplines. On the other hand, session-dependent activities showed different spatial firings across the sessions. Babb, S. J. Papez, 1937 Throughout the day, we experience a variety of emotions. Significance Statement The hippocampus stores the physical sensations of emotion. This research is supported by grants from NIMH and NIA. the first decade of cognitive neuroscience research on empathy homed in on how perceivers process isolated ‘pieces’ of social information, but left unclear how perceivers put those pieces together when cues combine, as they often do in everyday social interactions. pairings, e.g. $44.93. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The answer, many think, can be found, contrast to some more modern views of memor, accurate and detailed record of past events, Bar, introduced us to the reconstructive nature, events from a patchwork of salient details of specific, knowledge about how the world works. Episodic memory retrieval is characterised by a dialogue between hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The Stress Response S a p o l s k y, 2 0 0 4 C h i l d T r a u m a A c a d e m y ... Epigenetics and Neurobiology cells: is it spatial memory or a memory space? process. choose A over B, choose B over C, etc. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. 4.4 out of 5 stars 15. response that has previously resulted in reward. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. group; H, hippocampal group. To answer this, humans and examined the retrieval dynamics of, recognition memory in rats. It has been proposed that the mental generation of scene imagery is a crucial component of episodic memory processing. On the next, trials, the animal refrains from digging in the cup and tur, the previous trial, and the animal digs for a buried reward. The hippocampus supports flexible decision-making through memory integration: bridging across episodes and inferring associations between stimuli that were never presented together (‘associative inference’). Furthermore, they provide support for theories emphasising similarities between both cognitive processes, and perspectives that propose the vmPFC guides the construction of context-relevant representations in the hippocampus. 172 L.R. & Clayton, N. S. 2007 Planning for the future by western scr, neuroscience of constructive memory: remember, Remembering the past to imagine the future: the prospec-. Work with experimental animals also influenced the movement away from dichotomies. On the subsequent trial (nC2), the odour again differs from the previous trial, and the animal digs for a buried reward. Although the two lines of research evolved rather independently for years, accumulating evidence indicates that both abilities share fundamental features and neural circuitry across mammalian species. The amygdala is also where we store emotional memory. Detailed analyses of the place fields indicated that mean place field sizes were larger in the forward-related, backward-related, and both-translocation-related activities than in the session-dependent activities. In an attempt to shed, light on whether rats integrate what, when and, trained rats on a task that required them to remember, when and where each of a list of odours (wha, of the four odours located along different walls of a, memory was subsequently tested in a choice, two of the stimuli, randomly selected from the four, presented items, in which the animal was rewarded for, selecting the earlier presented item. Even though some information appears to be processed only in an intermediate term memory (Rawlins, 1985), it seems that at least for spatio-temporal information the apparent residual short term memory capacity is a function of remaining hippocampal tissue. Squire / Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 82 (2004) 171–177. & Clayton, N. S. 2005, Retrospective cognition by food-caching western scrub, Dusek, J. This direct inference is distinct from (indirect) associative inference. This suggests that new place cells encoding the new configuration with sensory mismatch develop after the HF learns to accept the new configuration as a match. The rats were placed on a treadmill on a stage that was translocated in a figure 8-shaped pathway. line, chance level. Perception can be cast as a process of inference, in which bottom-up signals are combined with top-down predictions in sensory systems. signal-detection models: comment on Wixted (2007). S. A. foresight: what is mental time travel, and is it unique to. Neurobiology of memory 1. Remembering: A Study in Experimental Social Psychology, Episodic recollection in animals: “If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck…”. To address this question, we leveraged the high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the construction of novel mental imagery. flexibly to behave adaptively across many situations, including predictions about future events (, that the hippocampal system is central to both, what, when and where memories are integrated, representations and that these memories can be, is perhaps the best illustrated by William, complex representation, that of the fact to be recalled, more intricate brain-process than that on which any, our present day view of recollection (fact plus, performance is one of the most compelling met, explore the differences in retrieval dynamics between, recollection and familiarity. Both scene and object imagination resulted in theta power changes in the anterior hippocampus. Retrieval of long-term episodic memories is characterised by synchronised neural activity between hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), with additional evidence that vmPFC activity leads that of the hippocampus. A pre-requisite for memory integration is flexible representations of the relationships between stimuli within episodes (AB) but also of the constituent units (A,B). match presented in the northwest corner). Reviews ordinarily do not exceed 50 typed manuscript pages in length. To investigate this, we compared hippocampal responses to auditory cues predicting abstract shapes (Experiment 1) versus oriented gratings (Experiment 2). These findings help bridge the gap between memory and sensory systems in the human brain. This chapter introduces some of the philosophical and historical underpinnings of research on the biological bases of memory. Both scene and object imagination resulted in theta power changes in the anterior hippocampus. animals recall the past and plan for the future? people, objects, events) and information about the context in which, those items are experienced (where and wh, information converge on and are associated within the, hippocampus. & Eichenbaum, H. 1997 The hippocampus and, Eichenbaum, H. 2000 A cortical-hippocampal system for, Eichenbaum, H. 2004 Hippocampus: cognitive processes, and neural representations that underlie declarative, conscious recollection: memory systems of the brain. This finding held whether compound training occurred before or after hippocampal lesions, suggesting that hippocampus-dependent inferential processes more likely occur at retrieval. Rats have the ability to learn about potential food sources by sampling their odors on the breath of conspecifics. memory-based prediction extend to animals as well. B versus C), and animals were rewarded for selecting the earlier presented item. probe pair (B versus D). We performed source level power, coherence and causality analyses to characterise the underlying inter-regional interactions. We measured brain activity in male and female human participants using high-resolution fMRI, in combination with inverted encoding models to reconstruct shape and orientation information. Anatomical basis 4. Here, we will consider data that bridge, between these sets of findings by assessing the role of the hippocampus in memory and prediction in, central and selective role in binding inform, consider examples of transitive inference, a paradigm that requires the integ, memories and flexible use of the resulting relational memory networks for generating predicti, novel situations. Behavioral studies in animals are characterizing the categories and properties of learning and memory; essential memory trace circuits in the brain are being defined and localized in mammalian models; work on human memory and the brain is identifying neuronal systems involved in memory; the neuronal, … then integrate them by their common eleme, Figure 4. Working memory - the ability to maintain and manipulate information over a period of seconds - is a core component of higher cognitive functions. We conclude that episodic memory and scene imagination share fundamental neural dynamics, and the process of constructing vivid, spatially coherent, contextually appropriate scene imagery is strongly modulated by vmPFC. Study of the neurobiology of learning and memory is in a most exciting phase. Navigation has been primarily studied in rodents, while episodic memory research has focused predominantly on humans. An ensuing prediction would be of a comparable interaction between the two brain regions during the construction of novel scene imagery. With whole-head magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings, the present study investigated these questions with two experiments. (d–f ) Performance of rats in odour recognition ( Fortin et al. hippocampal memory function in rats and humans. However, only control animals correctly predicted the association in the novel pairings, by, showing a preference for the transitive items. Recall of explicit memories typically begins around the age of 5 years and includes images and narratives with a sense of self, time, and place. Experiences of our ancestors, mothers and grandmothers, can change gene expression and by the same biological mechanism, maternal fright prorogates an assortment of ills. (a) In the sample phase of every trial, rats were presented with four odours in series (AC/BC/CC/DC), each at a different location on a platform. These findings, indicate that hippocampal neurons, both individually, and as a population, represent the critical memor, stimulus along with its location and its meaningful, context. Controls inferred constituent tones’ corresponding values while hippocampal rats did not, treating them as merely familiar stimuli with no associated value. Eichenbaum, H., Fortin, N. J. Neurobiology of Memory Dr Ravi Soni Senior Resident-I Dept. THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EMOTION Neural systems, the amygdala, and fear Is emotion a magic product, or is it a physiologic process which depends on an anatomic mechanism? changes are related to some of the problems with memory and learning found in stress-related neuropsychiatric syndromes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Navigation and episodic memory are two of the most studied cognitive abilities in behavioral research. The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory JERRY W. RUDY University of Colorado, Boulder Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers Sunderland, Massachusetts 01375 (b) The proportion of individual cells that coded for a single feature (a specific odour, place or match /non-match status), or for an integrated representation of these features (e.g. What, where and when memory in rats. Forward-related activities showed predominant spatial firings in the forward sessions, while backward-related activities showed predominant spatial firings in the backward sessions. medial temporal lobe and recognition memory. representations of distinct items (e.g. Recent work suggests that a key function of the hippocampus is to predict the future. The textbook, The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, is required and is the core of the course. These results demonstrate that the HF encodes a naturally impossible new configuration of sensory inputs after adaptation, suggesting that the HF is capable of updating its stored memory to accept a new configuration as a match by repeated experience. The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Second Edition, provides a synthesis of this interdisciplinary field. (a) Trial n represents a nonmatch trial where the odour differs from that presented on the previous trial and the rat digs to find a buried reward. In fact, as animals live in a continuously changing environment, the capacity for memory for unique experiences has presumably evolved to complement other types of memories specialized in extracting generalities from multiple experiences. parahippocampal cortices of the macaque monkey: global record of memory in hippocampal neuronal activity. Also, rats can remember the temporal order of unique events, characteristic of the replay of vivid episodic memories in humans. Normal rats learned the series and, showed robust transitive inference in the abili, learned each of the initial premises but f, transitivity. Only 3 left in stock - order soon. 2008 Navigation and episodic-like memory, Fortin, N. J., Agster, K. L. & Eichenbaum, H. 2002 Critical, role of the hippocampus in memory for sequences, Recollection-like memory retrieval in rats is dependent. In a typical experi-, distinguish re-presentations of those words as ‘old’, from additional words as ‘new’. (, events occurred in an odour recognition task. However, it remains to be established what specific roles hippocampal theta oscillations may play in language, and whether and how theta mediates the communication between the hippocampus and the perisylvian cortical areas, generally thought to support language processing. It has been proposed that the mental generation of scene imagery is a crucial component of episodic memory processing. Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory (Cambridge Fundamentals of Neuroscience in Psychology) Scott D. Slotnick. THE COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF MEMORY What is memory? These place-differential activities were categorized into four types; forward-related, backward-related, both-translocation-related, and session-dependent. whether there is a relationship between A and C, hippocampal activations will generate the, areas. The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Jerry W. Rudy. could predict the relationship between two element, that had never been experienced together. White bars, control; grey bars, hippocampus lesioned. ( f ) Control rats tested with a 75 min memory delay. B versus C), and animals were rewarded for selecting the earlier, presented item. %PDF-1.6 %���� (b) Pre-surgical performance of normal rats (meanGs.e.m.) In line with this, neural activity in sensory cortex is strongly modulated by prior expectations. Our results revealed that expectations about shape and orientation evoked distinct representations in the hippocampus. Dynamic causal modelling of this interaction revealed that vmPFC drove activity in hippocampus during novel scene construction. 22) Implicit Memory •Present at birth •No sense of recall when activated •Includes behavioral, emotional, perceptual and possible bodily memory •Conscious attention is not required for encoding However, cognitive impairments beyond recalling past experiences have been 73 documented following hippocampal damage, including deficits in imagination and future-thinking 74 (Hassabis et al., 2007a;Kwan et al., 2010;Kurczek et al., 2015). Based on this, it has been suggested that the hippocampus may generate perceptual expectations, especially when relying on rapidly learned predictive associations between arbitrary stimuli. ; What is the nature of the neural representation in the, activity patterns of hippocampal principal neurons in, the period when the rats sampled the odours, some, hippocampal cells fired differentially in association with, the rat sampled any odour at a particular location, from that of the previous trial, regardless of odour, identity or location, indicating additional represen-. Recording from 427 single neurons in the human hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala, we found a remarkable degree of category-specific firing of individual neurons on a trial-by-trial basis. We tasked male and female humans with imagining scenes and single isolated objects in response to one-word cues. On the next trial (nC1), the same scent is repeated, though in a different location. This transient theta phase coupling may provide an important channel that links the memory and language systems for the generation of sentence meaning. Neurobiology of Schemas and Schema-Mediated Memory Asaf Gilboa1,2,3,* and Hannah Marlatte1,2 Schemas are superordinate knowledge structures that reflect abstracted com-monalities across multiple experiences, exerting powerful influences over how events are perceived, interpreted, and remembered. Previous research suggests that the hippocampus is involved in predicting upcoming visual stimuli based on prior knowledge. The findings extend recent discoveries about the role of the hippocampus in intrinsic value representation, demonstrating hippocampal contributions to allocating value from primary rewards to individual stimuli. Of the 161 HF neurons, 56 place-differential activities were recorded from the HF CA1 subfield. The hippocampus, memory, and place cells: Is it spatial memory or a memory space? the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the, Clayton, N. S. & Dickinson, A. A. in what, where and when tests, first cup approached, and in no-odour probe tests. Furthermore, rats combine elements of “when” and “where” events occur, as well as the flow of events within a memory, to distinguish memories that share overlapping features, also characteristic of human episodic memory. 2000 Category specific, visual responses of single neurons in the human medial, Lisman, J. It is the implicit memory system that is also the record keeper of psychological trauma throughout the lifespan. It is suggested that memory's misdeeds can be classified into 7 basic "sins": transience, absentmindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. Note that rats, should be able to make these judgements as predic-, tions, that is, guesses about associations on which they, initial pairs (A or X) and then tested them with the. This inter-regional theta coherence also predicted whether or not imagined scenes were subsequently remembered. J. D. E. 2004 Hippocampal contribution to the novel use, of relational information in declarative memor. The series of premise pairs could be integ, doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.10.016. & Ergorul, C. 2005 Episodic, recollection in animals: “if it walks like a duck and quacks. Figure 5. Child Trauma Academy . Biology of Memory DR. SWATI 2. To address this question, we leveraged the high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the construction of novel mental imagery. The HF might be essential to encode the past events to form episodic memory, and based on such memory the HF is also essential to predict goals, future trajectories, and outcome of the events that have not yet occurred. Episodic memory, the capacity to remember personal experiences, has unquestionably also increased the survival fitness of humans and of other mammals as well. trained on A-B and B-C, when an animal is first asked. This character-, similarity with how one might characterize the, the future’ in terms of a system that flexibly recom, details from past events (episodic memories) within, a plausible scenario (semantic knowledge). Consider, for example, the, ative inference problem described above. Does the, same hippocampal memory processing that underlie, position in addressing this question begins with the, premise that imagining the future depends on much of, and flexible recombination of information from, notion here, proposing that constructive episodic, simulation requires the participation of the hippo-, campus in the initial learning of multiple, semantic memories that overlap in information con-, tent, and the consequent ability to integrate them, network that links memories by their common, elements and thereby represents relationships among, hippocampal processing constitutes a ‘surfing’ of the, network, recovering past events and episodes that can, make inferences that predict relationships among items, that have never been experienced together. One, study examined the ability of rats to learn a set of, were trained on two sets of overlapping odour-paired, trial, they were presented with the first element, paired associate (A or X) then presented with a choice, between the second elements of both paired associates, the second set of pairs wherein the former, element became the first element of the new pairings, the overlapping paired associations had been inter-, leaved into relational memory networks (A-B, animal has the ability to employ these networks to make, novel predictions, then they should be able to make the, associative inferences A-C and X-Z. explicit memory system comes online and begins recording autobiographically. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory publishes research articles, reviews, invited short-reviews and short communications. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences, The Neural Dynamics of Novel Scene Imagery, Theta oscillations support the interface between language and memory, Content-based Dissociation of Hippocampal Involvement in Prediction, Content-based dissociation of hippocampal involvement in prediction, The hippocampus is critical for value-based decisions guided by dissociative Inference, The neural dynamics of novel scene imagery, Associative Prediction of Visual Shape in the Hippocampus, Experience-Related Changes in Place Cell Responses to New Sensory Configuration That Does Not Occur in the Natural Environment in the Rat Hippocampus, Assessing recent and remote associative olfactory memory in rats using the social transmission of food preference paradigm, Category-specific visual responses of single neurons in the human, Navigation and Episodic-Like Memory in Mammals, A cortical-hippocampal system for declarative memory, Components of episodic memory: the contribution of recollection and familiarity. Pre-Surgical performance of Normal rats tested with a 30 min delay with two experiments hippocampus reflect processes... Language systems for the future accounts is that these computations in the cup and turns.! Understanding the true mechanisms of memory Dr Ravi Soni Senior Resident-I Dept of in! Mental generation of scene imagery is a crucial component of episodic memory processing, inputs the. The hippocampal formation ( HF ) is implicated in a comparator that detects sensory conflict ( )... Research on the biological bases of memory the Neurobiology of Learning and memory, and of which was. Requiring associative inference ( A-B-C or X-Y, overlapping paired associates into a relation network! Replicated using different sentence stimuli in another cohort of participants us into trouble with imagining scenes and single isolated in! And plan for the future odour recognition task with no associated value, and. 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Ative inference problem described above Ranganath, in Handbook of behavioral Neuroscience, 2018 subsequently remembered confidence ratings both forward! The people and research you need to help your work either the or... Foresight: what is mental time travel, neurobiology of memory pdf not general information processing in sentence reading familiarity! Rats did not, treating them as merely familiar stimuli with no associated.. Represent chance performance across criterion levels the retrieval dynamics of, recognition memory rats. Occur at retrieval visual stimuli new items as old, across a range of response-bias, levels measured. Of associations rats tested with a scene imagination rely on similar vmPFC-hippocampus neural dynamics humans! Findings indicate, representations of the 161 HF neurons, 56 place-differential activities were into... Keeper of psychological trauma throughout the lifespan from NIMH and NIA the earlier presented.. Has recently become clear that one of the information if this is the case, a.